automotive finishing.

by:AIRWOLF     2019-12-09
Although this minivan is almost as common on North American streets as a pickup truck, its penetration rate in the European market is relatively small.
But this is changing, although it should be noted that they are described as \"Minivans\" rather than as \"Minivans\"MPVs\"--multi-
Vehicle use.
According to Daimler Chrysler, MPVs sold 250,000 vehicles in the European market in 1998;
Sales are expected to reach 960,000 units in 2004. . .
That explains why Mercedes
Mercedes will launch the Vaneo mini-MPV.
Vaneo is being built at the company\'s Ludwigsfelde plant (Southern Berlin).
The plant began production of these vehicles in October. 2001.
The yield at the beginning of the year was 50,000 units;
Production can be expanded to 70,000 units, according to the company.
Vehicle measures 4,192-mm long, 1,742-mm wide (
Mirrors are not included), and 1,830-mm high (
Roof rail).
Essentially, it\'s a-
Box design, box with space for 7 people (
Two of them are children).
The Ludwigsfelde plant has been producing commercial trucks since 1991.
After announcing Vaneo\'s position at the plant, Daimler Chrysler invested 500-
Millions of euros for improving existing buildings, building new buildings, improving infrastructure and training staff.
For example, there is a new 20,000-[m. sup. 2]body shop. The 19,800-
Major renovations were carried out in the main hall of M2.
A paint shop of 15,000[m. sup. 2]
The area was completely stripped and rebuilt.
Body Shop and paint shop by 80-in long bridge.
There are two main assembly lines in the body workshop;
ABB robots for welding 130 units.
Ultrasonic sensors for monitoring welding quality.
Four perception machines
The measuring unit of the production line checks the manufacturing quality.
In addition, there are two CNC-
Before they go to the paint shop, check the body shell for control measurements.
In the paint, there are pre-
Treatment and phosphate treatment, followed by a cathode primer.
11 industrial robots are used for painting.
An interesting feature of the paint shop is Daimler Chrysler first: dry the primer using a condensation process.
Vaneo has 10 different colors to choose from, six of which are optional metal coatings.
Another interesting finishing
The relevant aspect is that the entire bottom is coated with smooth plastic material, which is said to be designed to reduce wind resistance and road noise and prevent corrosion.
From paint to final assembly, about 2,000 pieces are assembled together to make the van-
It\'s MPV.
Two paint departments at Toyota Kermit Whitfield Toyota Motor Manufacturing Company\'s Kentucky plant have developed the flexibility to paint cars and minivans in the same facility.
While dealing with the ruthless nature of the water, they draw small pieces with high quality finishesborne process.
Let\'s start with some basic facts: Toyota Motor Manufacturing in Kentucky (TMMK\'s)
The factory\'s two paint departments are the only ones in North America that paint cars and minivans at the same time on the same line.
It handles about 500 Camrys and Siennas in two shifts per shift.
Solvent is used for primer and clear coating, but primer and water-borne.
From the deposition process to the application of cavity wax, there are 13 different stepsin-
White by becoming a painted body for the assembly line, it all takes about 10 hours.
Cars and minivans. . .
The simple statements that cars and minivans handle on the same line contain a lot.
In doing so, Toyota has chosen a different path from its competitors.
Most automakers have found that, although the flexibility to produce different body styles on the same line may in theory be desirable, in fact, in order to adapt to vehicles with large size differences, the changes that must be made inevitably require a dedicated facility.
However, unlike other car companies with a dedicated minivan platform, Toyota designed Sienna on the Camry platform with the aim of getting the two models on the same line.
This requires some adjustments in the paint shop, but it can be said to be much less than you expected.
The main accommodation is that Sienna can only use two of the three basecoat/clearcoat series.
This is mainly due to the fact that only two lines are needed to handle Siena production, and some modifications are needed to paint flow rates, while Toyota also wants to keep a production line for Camry\'s exclusive production.
The basecoat painting process on Camry takes 118 seconds.
However, due to the larger surface area of Sienna, It takes 150 seconds of processing time.
Therefore, Toyota has set aside a route that can turn in the bread --and-
Produce butter products at the fastest speed allowed, rather than reducing the line speed of all three products.
It\'s all sorted out by computers in a large set.
After the body is detonated and masked, they roll over the doll into the staging ground.
When they cross the threshold, they read the magnetic plates at the bottom of each trolley, telling the sorting computer what color to paint the body.
Based on this information, the computer moves these toys to one of the four tracks leading to each basecoat booth.
The vagaries of water
Only two bodies were painted on its surface.
Before washing the lines and bells with alcohol and alcohol, bear the basecoat linesionized water.
It\'s a big wash, but department assistant manager Dale Beatty says that otherwise the paint will dry on the bell and form an air board that causes the paint to apply evenly or \"spit out \".
He pointed out that water-
Due to the presence of solvents, this material has unique problems in this regard
The clearcoat-based app is on 14 cars and then the lines are refreshed.
In theory, Toyota, with only two paint batches, is able to more flexibly synchronize supply and demand, giving dealers only the color of the car they want.
In fact, given that both Camry and Siena have only 10 colors, any advantage may not beexistent.
However, the fact that Toyota is able to effectively paint and manufacture in such a small increment may be beneficial to them as the industry is growing rapidly
Build a fast delivery pull system.
For example, Toyota\'s Kexing Honda has built a large number of vehicles out of 30.
Main advantages of water-
Reducing toxic solvents is obviously good for the environment, but there is a price for this benefit.
In addition to the increased cleaning rate, water-
The load material is much more sensitive to changes in humidity.
Beatty says the optimum humidity of the paint booth is 72% and the acceptable variance window is only + /-3%.
If the failure of the automatic humidity control equipment causes unacceptable spikes, an alarm is issued and immediate attention is paid to avoid the need for the body in the booth to restartpainting.
If the humidity is too low, basecoat dries too fast and loses its luster.
If the water is too high, the water does not flow completely from the body, and then boils through a transparent coating, polluting the finish with a phenomenon called \"burst.
\"Like Toyota cars, continuous improvement.
The culture of continuous improvement, the improvement of the paint department tends to increase slightly.
An example is the recent switch to air-
Auxiliary nozzle used to apply the seal to the weld.
Toyota uses a large number of seals on the bodyin-
White, in the past, it has all been applied to a continuous bead, which usually has to be spread by hand.
Simple change by adding air-
Auxiliary nozzle, which puts a flat spray of the sealing device that does not need to spread, the company is able to eliminate a process to save the cost of £ 60 and reduce the sealing device by nearly a pound per vehicle
1 cent per unit
What is even more surprising is that the paint department improves the quality of the paint by closing part of the production line.
When the second plant was put into use in 1994, one feature of the paint production line was the automatic wet Sander.
The primer-coated object first passes through the manually wet sanding area and then enters the Sander, which gives the body a chance and then sends it to de-ionized water.
Toyota\'s engineers believe that the combination of the Sander and the shower will result in the body being largely free of dirt and impurities, which are the bane of a uniform finish.
On the contrary, however.
The machine produces a lot more sludge than the individual hand-polished sludge, and the shower is not enough to clean up thoroughly.
As a result, the machine, proud of technology, was shut down. And after re-
Focus on better manual wiping technology, dirt
Related issues declined.
Back to the basics, TMMK is currently placing a strong emphasis on training to eliminate paint defects.
It has launched a program called \"Target Zero seed\" that aims to remove dirt and dust from the body called \"seed\" before being applied.
To do this, the company is back to basics and re-
Training workers in basic problem solving skills of Toyota production system (TPS).
It then launched a program called \"painting practice\" or POP.
Through POP, team leaders from different departments of the paint shop took the time to learn the basics of their own areas outside-
Including such hands
Practice of mixing chemicals for plating.
Cheryl Jones, general manager of TMMK paint, said that the key purpose of this crossover is
She hopes that the staff will have a broader vision through training, so as to improve the quality of work.
On a less esoteric level, POP also teaches skills such as the right way to wipe the body so that no harmful little seeds are left.
The next TMMK will soon be able to take the lessons they have learned in their struggle with temperament water --
The production process of the second factory is well used in the first factory.
Paint department specializing in solvent-
Based on paint, an overhaul is planned within three years, which will enable it to paint with two solventsand water-Bear the material.
The move is part of Toyota\'s Water Conversion Program --
Paint Systems for factories around the world.
This will mean reconfiguring the production line, adding ovens that can spray water from basecoat, but also replacing equipment and robots.
The project is very much needed, Jones said, because the equipment at factory one is \"too old for you to even buy replacement parts in the market anymore.
\"The combination of new, more effective equipment and institutional knowledge gained over the years to process water --
Undertaking the process should further improve the ability of quality leaders.
That makes Toyota\'s competitors a little nervous.
Related article: limited color palette: Limited edition states the relative rarity of the vehicle by using external paint.
A proper example is
Audi TT-2002-
It is the ALMS of TT commemorative edition.
The initials are represented by the word acronym.
Audi has recently dominated the American Le Mans Series, which has won the championship of drivers and manufacturers in the past two seasons.
Only 1,000 of cars are produced.
There are only two colors painted on the car: Misano Red and Avus silver. (
People who buy Standard Coupe can go from bright black to Raven Black (pearl), Denim Blue (pearl), Moro Blue (pearl); Aviator Gray (pearl)Green Desert (pearl)
, Red amulet, Silver Lake (metallic)
Or white. )Both pearl-
The effect color is accented by a special 18-very goodin. , nine-
Spoke Cast alloy wheels.
The ALMS model also has many special internal features, such as color-
The interior is coordinated. The red car uses silver silk Napa leather interior, and the silver car uses red interior materials. (
By the way, there is a 225 under the special painthp, 1. 8-liter, five-
Double turbo valvecam engine; a six-
Speed manual gearbox and quattro permanent full-wheel-drive. )
Will Audi draw 500 of each color? No.
According to the company spokesperson, according to the demand, they will paint each color in batches, and the painting is more \"the most needed color \".
\"The ALMS commemorative version of TT may be coveted by enthusiasts and collectors,\" said Len Hunt, vice president of Andy, USA.
We believe there will be more people who want it.
But this is the whole content of \"limited. --
2002 alms tt has GSV in red or silver.
It will only produce 1,000.
Although electric XVI can apply fluids from adhesives to silicone, spices to water, it can also handle coatings.
The device weighs 15 ounces.
, Works at 2,000 psi, usually more than 1,800 cycles per minute.
There\'s an interior 24-
V. DC solenoid coils that do not require added value.
All wet parts are stainless steel because there is only one moving part, highspeed drip-
It is said that free operation can be ensured and maintenance can be minimized.
The fluid can be supplied to the applicator via a pump, pressure tank or gravity feed.
From Spraymation (Ft. Lauderdale, FL).
For more information, please fill in 110 on the reader service card.
Skip painting well, this is not the case of completely skip painting, but 3m car (Livonia, MI)
A film has been developed that can be used instead of paint on doors and windows
Pillars and other areas of the vehicle.
Scotchcal black screen movie at high-, medium-and low-
The gloss level, which is said to meet the OEM specifications, is similar to or greater than the paint requirements for durability and performance.
By using a special fixture, the film can be pasted at the production speed.
Any defects detected during the application can be solved by stripping the film and applying new components. Fine-
Line shielding, VOCs, and paint booths are notissues.
For more information, please fill in 111 on the reader service card.
Despite the suggestion to the contrary, color continuity, according to Robert Daily, color marketing manager of DuPont Herberts automotive systems, car color selection has not changed much in a person\'s life (Troy, MI).
\"It is generally believed that every generation will have the same aspirations in terms of house, clothes, entertainment, etc. after retirement,\" he said . \".
This extends to the color.
Each generation is attracted by the colors of their heyday.
\"Can only hope that every day is wrong, or--
From some cars on the street at the moment ---
Once Generation X enters the luxury market, avant-garde styling may not be the only surprise.
As far as he is concerned, there must be good taste to win every day.
\"The Xers generation, because they are not so rich at this point in life, tend to buy more entrances --
\"Flat vehicles tend to be painted in brighter, more primary colors,\" he explains.
He insists that these colors may continue to be popular, but will become softer over time.
The Daily Mail insists, \"your favorite color today is not the same as the one you picked when you were six.
\"The color choices around the world are also different. Silver (18. 4%), medium gray (17. 3%)
And white pearls (14. 8%)
It is the top three luxury goods market in North America.
However, 36% of Europeans order silver/gray vehicles, blue metal (18%)and black (13%)next. Just 6.
0% of European car buyers order white cars.
Instead, Japanese buyers ordered 43% silver-gray cars, 35% white cars, and only 8. 0% in black.
Compared to the fact that 60% of Japanese cars were white 20 years ago, this is a big change.
\"Americans think white pearls are a luxurious color, but it\'s hard to find it in Europe,\" the Daily Mail said . \".
\"White is the color of the company\'s car over there.
\"So, the Daily Mail says it\'s hard to convince European automakers to provide this color in North America.
Volvo is one of the car manufacturers.
After years of hard work, Volvo finally gave in.
Sweden\'s focus company has added 2,500 White Pearl S80s to its 2002 production.
The CAS process is the key to the accurate and efficient application of materials and is now a decisive feature of the paint shop robot.
It\'s not the arm--
This is what it can do.
Fanuc Robot (
Rochester Hills, Michigan)
In fact, its roots in North America are the automotive industry: it was called GMFanuc when it started, and \"GM\" refers to GM.
More importantly, the original product that really established the supplier status in the automotive industry was a painting robot.
So one can argue that-
As Jon Carr, vice president of the company\'s paint workshop Automation Group, did ---
The company has a solid background in providing paint automation for cars.
Interestingly enough, however, Karr says today, the focus is not on the robot arm itself, but on the process.
The arm is given;
What the arm can do is the most important thing.
As a result, technological developments in this area tend to focus on improving processes: painting robots are designed according to process requirements. (
Yes, it seems obvious today, but keep in mind that sometimes the obvious glitz of technology will make it impossible for people to see what is obvious. )
On a macro level, one of the goals of car paint facilities ---
Today is undoubtedly more critical than ever. -
It has something to do with what Karr calls the \"Applied Economy.
\"In other words, there is a focus on putting paint where it is needed: in the car.
Paint is expensive not only to spend money, but also to deal with the waste caused by places where paint should not go.
The goal of the process is to improve the efficiency of circulation.
One way to achieve this is to take advantage of a rotating Bell sprayer running at a relatively high speed (
40,000 rpm or above)
And provide efficient application of paint materials. Charged Up.
In the past few years, a trend has been to use water --borne paint.
Karr noted that switching from solvents is particularly difficultbased to water-
Based on, that is, charging the paint for the purpose of electrostatic application.
After all, water is very conductive.
An obvious problem is that the charge can enter the system (
Follow the paint stream back to its source)
Or the charge will dissipate in the fluid.
Working with partner Sames Corp.
, The Fanuc robotics company provides the so-called \"AquaBell\", which is a direct
Charge coatings for electrostatic applications of water-borne paint.
The unit has two main components.
Rotating hour and voltage block system of paint gun (
Called \"AccuStat \").
The paint is actually included in the reservoir inside the main body of the applicator.
Because it is included and charged, there will be no problem with charging except where it needs to be charged.
From the point of view of material protection, this setting is also good.
The amount of paint material is loaded into the tank according to the specific requirements of the task to be performed.
What happened was that the robot positioned AquaBell at the dock.
Clean the gun and put the required amount of paint into the reservoir.
The robot then continues the painting operation.
At the same time, the control system determines what color is needed next in order to be ready for the robot to return with a gun. On Track.
According to Karr, there are usually two different methods used by car painting plants: stop station and line tracking.
At a car assembly plant in Europe, it is clear that the two are combined: when painting cutting is involved --ins (e. g.
, Inside door, deck, Hood)
The mobile line stops.
Although the paint shop is usually automated, Karr says.
, Cutting
In painting, there are still manual operations that need to be found.
This is because the closed panel needs to be opened and closed.
Therefore, in order to automate this and have a mobile line, it is necessary to have a device (e. g. , a three-
Shaft Opening robot
This opens the door, a painting robot \"knows\" where the vehicle is in space, then moves along it and draws.
After the painting is done, the other device will close the off panel.
This is very simple when the vehicle stops.
But Karr says demand for high hourly throughput (e. g.
50 jobs per hour)
, The tracking line is the most effective, especially when considering the huge cost of the paint booth. (E. g.
In order to get the same type of throughput as stop tracking, there needs to be multiple stations.
This means multiple robots, air handling systems, etc. )
Another area in which robots are looking for applications is maintenance.
In this case, check the paint body with a visual system.
If a defect is detected, the coordinate information defining its location is sent to robot control.
Then the robot gets to that location and walks through the area in question.
The vehicle is then delivered to the repair area.
Karr said the system aims to minimize the number of defects that may not be discovered when the work is done manually.
With the continued popularity of pickup trucks, the robot found another area in the finishing application: spraying the bed liner material into the pickup box. --
Before GSV worked, Carl Traynor, senior director of marketing at Motoman, Inc. , was an aspect of robotic body painting(
Oh, West Carroilton)
, Emphasizes has more to do with what happened before the task was completed, rather than during the operation. Simulation.
Traynor said that the real benefit of simulated painting is that the process is \"path intensive\", so to improve efficiency, it is crucial to ensure that the robot arm is traveling along the right route, no matter where the arm goes and how the material is applied to the body (
In both cases, the right place means no waste).
Traynor said that the moto sim simulation package is almost a foundation for many robot applications for Motoman\'s robot applications.
He also noted that there was a strong connection with the major simulation packages provided by other vendors.
When asked about the difference between Motoman robots and their valuable competitors, Traynor cited a wide range of laser cutting applications for these robot applications: the diameter of a given laser beam (
Especially in contrast to the spray size of the bell or gun)
The precise location is a must as fast travel is stable.
He believes that the robot that is particularly beneficial in physical application is PX 2900 (
The numbers are in millimeters in relation to the length of the arm).
He suggests that the arm length is beneficial because it may not require an external seventh axis to provide the range, even for large objects (e. g. Pickup truck).
By eliminating the external axis, the complexity of installation and programming can be minimized.
This means finishing things before painting can speed up.
Coating it looks for a way by which the metal can be coated with an anti-corrosion liquid or lubricating oil, which is not only accurate, uniform, but relatively no waste?
United aviation experts (
Cincinnati insists that the TotalStat system can do that.
This is an electrostatic system that uses the so-called \"soft spray\" technology instead of a hard spray at air pressure. based systems.
The system is said to be foggy-and over-spray-
It is necessary to have no fume hood or exhaust system.
The pump of the system works with the pipeline speed of the coated material (
So as to ensure the consistency of coating thickness).
For more information, please fill in 112 on the reader service card.
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